They are three forms of production. They are;

1. Primary production;

In Ghana primary production includes agriculture, the timber industry, fishing industry and the mining industry. Agriculture includes the preparation of land for growing of crops, fishing and the rearing of animals. In Ghana, many people are engaged in Agricultural activities. Agriculture is the most important occupation in Ghana. Some people produce crops and other rear animals. We shall describe food and industrial crop production and animal rearing.

Agriculture is the act of developing plants and domesticated animals. Agriculture was the critical improvement in the ascent of inactive human civilization, by which cultivating of tamed species made food excesses that empowered individuals to live in urban communities.

* Food crops ; The food crops which are grown in Ghana include cereals and root corps. All over the country, there are farmers whose main work is to produce food crops. Some crops grow well in the savanna areas while other grow well in the forest areas.

The crops that grow well in savanna areas are millet,maize, rice,guinea corn,groundnuts, tomatoes and onions. The farmers clear the land with help of fire or with the hoe. Than the hoe or bullock plough is used to till the land. This makes the soil loose so that the crops can grow well.

* Export and Industrial Crops; Apart from food crops, some farmers also grow commercial and industrial crops. Commercial crops are those which are grown mainly for sale to people in other countries for the manufacturer of goods in our factories. Some of the crops grown are oil palm,coffee, sugarcane,coconut,tobacco, cotton,rubber and cocoa.The most important of our commercial crops is cocoa.

* The Cocoa Industry; The most important commercial crop in Ghana is cocoa. Cocoa was brought to Ghana by the Dutch missionaries in 1815. However, this did not results in the spread of cocoa cultivation until Tetteh Quarshie a native of Accra, returned from Fernando Po in 1879 with Amelonado Cocoa Pods. Farmers bought pods from his farm to plant and cocoa cultivation spread from the Akwapim area to other parts of the Eastern region. Today cocoa is mostly grow in the Forest zone of Ashanti,BrongAhafo,the Eastern, Central and Volta Region.

Some advantage of primary production

• Employment; The primary industries together employ over 40% of the Woking population in Ghana.

• Food; it practice food to feed the people of Ghana for example, we get cocoyam, yams,cassava.

• Foreign Exchange; Extractive industries earn foreign exchange. Exports like gold,cocoa and timbre are expected to earn foreign exchange. It is the largest foreign exchange earner in the country.

• Revenue to Government; The government gets revenue (money) in the from of income Tax and export taxes from Agriculturally products.

Disadvantages of primary production

Water pollution; The primary industries such as mining throw waste into water bodies which contaminates the water making them unsafe for drinking.

Deforestation; The use of poor farming methods such as shifting cultivation encourages deforestation when farmers clear the Forest in order to set up farms to grow crops making the land infertile.

Environmental Degradation; Land is degraded as a result of mining when the top soil is removed making the land unsuitable for future use if not restored.

2. Secondary production;
It involves turning raw materials into finished and semi finished goods .

Some advantage of secondary production

It leads to an increase in technological development; This is done through investment in the industrial sector.

It serves as source of revenue to the government; It provides revenue to the government through taxation. So two government obtains  money in the form of excise duties, income tax and export taxes on these industrial products.

Produces manufactured goods for local consumption; This helps to reduce imports on such items thus helping to save scarce foreign exchange.

Disadvantages of secondary production

• Air pollution;The activities of secondary industries pollute the air.For example, the waste,gases.

Water pollution; water materials from industries cause water pollution causing spread of water borne diseases example, large volumes of water and dirty liquids from textile factories and breweries are poured into nearby streams, rivers,lake.

Tertiary production; it is the production of services to support to primary and secondary production and the general development of the country.

The advantage of Tertiary Production.

The Tertiary industry through the service of the security forces help to defend and protect the country leading to peaceful atmosphere which attracts foreign investment.
Foreign Exchange Savings;
The supply of local service providers help the government to save scarce foreign exchange, example, local football coaches and medical doctors earn smaller than their foreign counterpart who come to the country.

•Foreign exchange;
That government gets foreign exchange from the tertiary industry.

Disadvantages of Tertiary Production

Social Vices;
It also brings social vices such as prostitution,pickpocketing etc.

Introduction of Disease;
The Tertiary industry through tourism brings about the introduction of diseases example, HIV/AIDS etc. 

Adulteration of indigenous culture;
It also through to introduces foreign culture which adulterates our local culture.

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